The capital of West Java province in Indonesia, Bandung is also the country’s third largest city and second largest metropolitan area. It is located at 768 meters above sea level, approximately 140 kilometers, southeast of Jakarta. It has a population of approximately 2,374,075(January 2012). Bandung has a cooler temperature year-round than most Indonesian cities.Water supply in Bandung relies both on surface water and groundwater resources. It has about 10 major rivers classified as Citarum River tributaries. It is mainly used for water power plant and agriculture needs. Meanwhile, the Decree of the Minister Energy and Mineral Resources acknowledged that groundwater potency in Bandung Basin is divided into three groundwater basins: Lembang, Batujajar dan Bandung-Soreang. 75% of need of clean water is dependent on groundwater.The urbanization and industrial development in Bandung has a profound influence not only on the quantity of water but also the quality of water in a certain watershed within. The groundwater level has dropped by more than 50 meters from its original level, forming a cone of depression in the water table and creating a critical zone, especially in industrial areas. One consequence is that the land is subsiding at a rate of 2.3-18.4 centimeters per month (International Review for Environmental Strategies; 2006).
Research reveals that, in 2007 nearly 70% of domestic water and 60% of industrial water needs were satisfied through groundwater. Data shows that in deep aquifers almost 43% of the flow rate of groundwater has been exploited. Environmental Geology and Mining Agency, (2005) noted that more or less 51.4 million m3 of groundwater, especially deep aquifer sources, is utilized in industrial sector. This is due to WSE is supplying only 2.9% of water of total industry needs.