Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh is the largest city of Vietnam. It is located in southeastern region of Vietnam, 1760 km south of Hanoi. The average elevation is 19 meters (62 ft) above sea level. It is located from 10 10′ – 10 38′ North and 106° 2′-106° 54′ East. It covers 0.6% of the total area of the whole country and has 6.6% of the total population. Ho Chi Minh has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with an average humidity of 75%. The average temperature is 27 °C (81 °F).

Water supply in Ho Chi Minh relies mainly on i) Dong Nai River ii) Sai Gon River iii) groundwater and iv) rain water. According to the report of IGES, in 2005 the total daily water demand for domestic and industrial activities was 1.75 million m3 which is projected to go up to 3.6 million m3 in 2020. Whereas, for agricultural purpose they use raw waters from irrigation canals networks of Sai Gon and Dong Nai rivers and storm water in rainy season.

The rapid increase in groundwater has been started since economic polies of Vietnam were opened in 1990. The expansion of surface water work could not meet the rapid increase and demand of industrialization and urbanization which resulted in increased exploitation of groundwater resources. As reported by Nga (2006) groundwater exploitation was estimated at 611,000 m3/day in and 2005 265,000 m3/day were used for domestic activities (residents, public works and services) and industry, respectively. According to the recent data given by Natural Resources and Environment (2013) it shows that groundwater level in the city is dropping by an average of 0.5-1 meter annually.

Some research have put forward that there is high concentration of chloride, DOC iron and nitrate at some areas of Ho Chi Minh cities. In some areas, the water has four times the permissible NO3 content and 100 times the iron content. It was also reported by Natural Resources and Environment (2011) water has turned brackish in many districts such as Binh Thanh and parts of districts 2 and Binh Chanh, while in the southeastern districts of Nha Be and Can Gio, water has become much saltier.

--GroundWater Sustainability in Asian Cities--