Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies an area of 650 sq.km on the banks of the Musi River and located at 17.366″N and 78.476″E. It has a population of 7.75 million as of 2012 Census. It lies 542m high from the mean sea level. Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate bordering on a hot semi-arid climate. The annual mean temperature is 26ºC.
According to Ground Water Department, “The groundwater level in Greater Hyderabad reached an all-time low in 2012.” In city the groundwater being exploited through borewells from depths ranging up to 300 metres so much so that in the pre-monsoon, water level was plummeting between five metres to 20 metres Below Ground Level (BGL)
The district is mainly occupied by loamy sands, sandy loams and sandy clay and are red in colour. The red soils are generally non saline, non alkaline and excessively drained. The laterite soils and black soils with a thickness ranging between 90-180 cm occur in western parts of the district.
The entire district is covered by various geological formation like Archaean crystalline, Deccan Traps, Puranas and River Alluvium. The common groundwater abstraction structures are bore wells and their yields mainly depending on the recharge conditions in the area. The entire district is underlain by consolidated rocks. Yield potential of the aquifers in these consolidated rocks vary widely. Due to increase in number of bore wells the yields have fallen drastically leading to failure of wells. The nature and occurrence of ground water in different water bearing formations is discussed below.
On analysis of pre-monsoon water level trend has shown decline in water levels in 87% of the wells while 13% of wells show rise in water levels during the last decade (1996-2005). The decline in water levels varies between 0.23 to 9.5 metres. A majority area of the district show water level decline of less than 2 metres was observed in the northwestern part of the district and a small area in the eastern part of the district shown declining trend of more than 4 metres. Post monsoon water level analysis for the period from 1996-2005 show that there is a decline in 59 % of observation wells based on water level trend for the last decade (1996-2005) and about 41% of the wells show rise in water levels. The water level decline for the last decade 1996-2005 varies between 0.34 and 12.46 metres. Fifty percent of observation wells show water level decline of less than 2 to 4 metres and 50% of the wells show water level decline of more than 4 metres (1996-2005).