Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest and metropolitan city in the country. The provincial capital,Lahore, is located in the east-central region, near the border withIndia. The name Punjab means “five waters,” or “five rivers,” and signifies the land drained by the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, which are tributaries of theIndus River. Punjab is the most developed and populous province of Pakistan with approximately 55% of the country’s total population. The Lahore city occupies an area of 404 square kilometres and located at 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E. It has an estimated population of 8 million. Lahore is the 5th largest city in South Asia and 23rd of the largest cities of the world. Lahore has sub-tropical, a semi-arid climate with an average rainfall of 575 mm per year, which varies from 300 to1200 mm. Being the centre of cultural and literary activities, it may rightly be called the cultural capital of Pakistan.
Groundwater is the only source of water in the city of Lahore. Around 89% of the total area of Lahore is using the tube well facility mostly provided by the Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA), Lahore. These tube wells are of different capacities that are installed at depth of 150 to 200 m and are roughly pumping 800 cusec water round the clock. As there is no municipal act, law or rule on water rights for the groundwater use, the industries in the city are pumping water at the rate of about 375 cusec. (Basharat & Rizvi, 2011).
Due to excessive use of groundwater by private housing and individual households, the groundwater level is plummeting at the rate of 2 ft per year (Basharat & Rizvi, 2011). The groundwater in Lahore is recharged from Ravi river, irrigation systems in the surroundings and rainfall. Ravi river was once the major source of recharge to groundwater in Lahore, but flows in the river have been very occasional since the year 2000 due to construction of Thein dam in India. Also, according to the report of PWOPs, sewerage with pollution of 728.75 tons per day is disposed in the River Ravi without any treatment which is severely affecting the groundwater quality.